With the development of many economies through rapid industrialization, the pollution problems have be increasing worse. Water pollution has been the largest problem with our large water bodies being on the receiving end.
For the past two thousand years, the human population have appeared the J-shaped pattern of growth. It is connected with the growth of human being and the industrialization. With the development of these tendency, it has make increasing problems to the water quality control. It happens from varieties corner of the industries and concentrate on the dense population area in the urban centers.
Domestic and Municipal Water Pollution: The Overpopulation Problem
Part of the water pollution is due to the high population growth and associated need for food expansion. In order to grow the crop fields, farmers used to using the insecticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. But most insecticides, are non-biodegradable due to chlorinated hydrocarbon DDT. These material adhered strongly to the field, when the soil has been eroded, and the materials will go into the river together. That is how the water pollution take shape.
The other reason of the water pollution is the continuous growth of the cities. It has been a pattern of population growth trend. A “disproportionate share” of population growth happens in all kinds of countries. Population growth, especially in the suburban, it increases the burden of the urban drainage systems. These kind of used water finally are not into the drainage systems, but nearby rivers or oceans. According to the statistics in 1976, the the raw domestic sewage that enters the municipal sewage treatment plant，99.9% are the water, only 0.1% is the other materials. Although it is outdated, based on our constant lifestyle, it is also effective.
Non-point pollution is also an important part of water pollution.Due to city landscape and living as well as landfill sites, it can result to urban runoff. The pollution caused by urban runoff is connected with and in proportion to the population growth. With the development of population, people living in urban also increase. Therefore, it is inevitable that many aspects will increase the urban pollution , such as pets, cars, detergent and so forth.
Industrial Pollution: The Industrialization Problem
Expect the J-shaped growth, the industrialization is also an very important part. Southwick points out that the most industrialized countries, such as Japan、America、countries in West Europe has increase their birth rates and the population growth rate is only 0.6% or less. However, as the overall world, the total population and industrialization is still increasing. The technological innovations and mechanization of industries have become a symbol in our culture , however, it also result to a higher pollution.
The first part of the Industrial Revolution is the mental industry, so far, it is also of much importance. Iron and steel pipe are vial and common materials in this world, and it is the major components materials in buildings, cars, tools and other appliances. The iron-steel making process needs a great deal of water ,such as SAW pipe , coking, pig-iron production, rolling operations. In addition, the metals themselves are strong acids, chromates, and are considered extremely toxic waste. Heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, arsenic, barium, chromium, and cadmium, are not inert in the environment, but can be converted into soluble methylated compounds in addition to it can be found in fish and other organisms .
Another major industry is the chemical industry. It can transfer many raw materials, such as oil, minerals, and natural gases into thousands varieties of different products ,for instance, in agricultural, buildings , services industries. Some of those products, the most common are polymers, plastics, textiles, the hot rolled round pipe and petrochemicals. Plastics is the most common material in the world ,but it is also major contributor of the organic-overloading to water sources. Any floating solids or liquid materials produced by chemical industry do harm to the aquatic ecosystems. According to the UN reports, there is dire needs to mitigate this water pollution demarco lest we won’t have enough clean water for majority of our population.
The energy industry has played a more and more important part in our life because we need fuels to maintain our the functioning of our lives. Steam power plants based on fresh water to cool the steam, and this water is delivered to receiving waters at a higher temperature. But it is also beneficial to bacterial and aquatic activity. During those process, water as a wasted thing into the river together and will cause heavy pollution.
Southwick’s models has showed a result of continuous development of history tendency and emphasis the dangers and exponential growth of population and industry pollution. The ongoing tendency is with the expansion pf cities, population growth has appeared a J-shaped models. With current tendency, urban runoff will continuously increase, and it is also a major reason to the water pollution.
So how to solve this kind of problems? Dolan insist that population pressure and pollution , these two problems are desperate and different.
He thinks that it can be solved by technique. However, it can’t supply with the certain solution and it may be cause another problems. And Dolan think human beings are not the main reason to cause pollution. But what can make sure that it is also based on our cultural attitudes and lifestyles: taking long shower, drive cars, throw rubbish no matter where it is. All these kinds of result in increase in w